Welcome to my blog!

\\\"We can complain because rose bushes have thorns, or rejoice because thorn bushes have roses.\\\" - Abraham Lincoln More »

The world of fractals

A fractal is a mathematical set that has a fractal dimension that usually exceeds its topological dimension and may fall between the integers. Fractals are typically self-similar patterns, where self-similar means they are the same from near as from far\\\". More »

Funny science

Wanna laugh? Just click here... More »

TEDx Cambridge School of Bucharest

How I Passed Chemistry - Tedx Cambridge School Of Bucharest - April 3, 2015 More »

Leadership Authentic Summer Camp

I had a great time together with 26 great students that came from all over the cuntry - Casa Vlasia, Snagov - August 3, 2015 More »

Becoming a volunteer at the orphanage

Training - Bucharest - February 15, 2015 More »


Category Archives: Other

Can We Create Artificial Gravity?

Please follow and like us:

Are Your Summer Clothes Good Enough To Be Sun Protective Clothing?

Did you know that the sun’s UV rays can go through right your clothes? Damaging rays can pass directly through the fabric fibers as well as between them. One-third of what you plan to wear this summer will not protect you from sun. You’ll tan, burn, and get sun damage UNDER your cloths. Understanding how to use clothing for sun protection will save you on sunscreen, provide you with convenient sun protection, actually keep you cool and it can even be a fashion statement if you do it right.


First, the bad news about your clothes:

  • One-third of summer clothes are lousy at sun protecting skin. This is especially true for lightweight, thin fabric made of cotton, linen and rayon.
  • The best sun protection comes from fabric you’re not likely to wear in the summer like thick and tightly woven fabric, dark colors, polyester, nylon and wool.
  • Wet, stretched fabric provides poor sun protection (think wet white cotton tee shirt). Interestingly, a dark tee shirt will probably provide more protection than a light-colored one because the color alone also helps absorb UV rays.
  • Fuzzy, new, unbleached cotton sometimes provides good sun protection when it’s dry, but UV rays can pass through cotton fibers.

I see sun exposure, sun damage and skin cancers on the backs of people who do not directly expose their skin to the sun, especially after summer. I can only assume the problem is sun coming through their shirts. Now, the good news: It’s easy to buy or make sun protective clothing! You can buy sun protective clothing from companies like REI, Sun Precautions, Coolibar etc. The styles are pretty generic, but the garments often contain hidden vents, zippers that open for ventilation and other clever tricks to keep you cool in sunny, hot places. (Think tropical vacation, hiking in the sun, gardening, cycling, etc.) The big surprise — You can make sun protective clothing out of what’s already in your closet using a product called Sun Guard. For $4 you treat an entire load of laundry, saving serious money and giving you fashion control.

Please follow and like us:

NASA History


French astronomer Alexis Bouvard published astronomical tables of the orbit of Uranus in 1821. This table made predictions of the future positions of the planet based on Newton’s law of motion and gravitation. However, Uranus did not follow this predicted orbit, causing Bouvard to hypothesize that there was some other body causing the perturbation. A young University of Cambridge student, John Couch Adams had become convinced of the “perturbation” theory. On July 3, 1841, he noted his intention to work on the problem. Adams was convinced that he could deduce the mass, position, and orbit of the perturbing body using just Uranus’s observed data and Newton’s law of gravitation. He began his calculations in 1843 and completed 6 iterations of the problem while tutoring undergraduates and teaching his servant how to read.

Another mathematician in France, Urbain Le Verrier, was also investigating the same problem. He made his final prediction of the position of the perturbing planet to the public on August 31, 1846, two days before Adam’s final solution was mailed to the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Le Verrier sent his own observations to J.G. Galle at the Berlin Observatory. On Sept 23 of the same year, the planet Neptune was found within 1 degree of the predicted location. Controversy erupted between Britain and France as to who was first to make the prediction. However, Adams publicly acknowledged that Le Verrier deserved the honors of the discovery, because his prediction led to the actual planetary discovery by Dr. Galle.

Source: NASA History

Please follow and like us:

Slime can see: Scientists discover that slime-forming bacteria act as optical objects


After more than 300 years of looking, scientists have figured out how bacteria “see” their world. And they do it in a remarkably similar way to us.

A team of British and German researchers reveal in the journal eLife how bacterial cells act as the equivalent of a microscopic eyeball or the world’s oldest and smallest camera eye.

“The idea that bacteria can see their world in basically the same way that we do is pretty exciting,” says lead researcher Conrad Mullineaux, Professor of Microbiology from QMUL’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).

Cyanobacteria are found in huge numbers in water bodies or can form a slippery green film on rocks and pebbles. The species used in the study, Synechocystis, is found naturally in freshwater lakes and rivers. Cyanobacteria evolved around 2.7 billion years ago and the fact that they are able to produce oxygen and fix carbon dioxide using energy from the sun – photosynthesis – is thought to have caused mass extinctions and the oldest known ice age.

As photosynthesis is crucial to the survival of these bacteria, scientists have sought to understand how they sense light. Previous studies have shown that they contain photosensors and that they are able to perceive the position of a light source and move towards it, a phenomenon called phototaxis.

The current study reveals that they are able to do this because the cell body acts like a lens. As light hits the spherical surface, it refracts into a point on the other side of the cell. This triggers movement by the cell away from the focused spot.

Within minutes, the bacteria grow tiny tentacle-like structures called pili that reach out towards the light source. As they attach to the surface that they’re on, they retract and pull the bacteria along.

“The fact that bacteria respond to light is one of the oldest scientific observations of their behaviour,” says Mullineaux.

“Our observation that bacteria are optical objects is pretty obvious with hindsight, but we never thought of it until we saw it. And no-one else noticed it before either, despite the fact that scientists have been looking at bacteria under microscopes for the last 340 years,” he says.

Synechocystis serves as a spherical lens but the team think that rod-shaped bacteria can also trap light and sense the direction it is coming from using refraction, acting like an optical fibre.

The findings are most likely an example of convergent evolution between bacteria and more complex multi-cellular organisms including animals and humans.

“The physical principles for the sensing of light by bacteria and the far more complex vision in animals are similar, but the biological structures are different,” says co-author Annegret Wilde from the University of Freiburg.

A Synechocystis cell is about half a billion times smaller than the human eye. As with the retina in the human eye, the image on the rear of the cell will be upside down. But its resolution will be much lower, so only a blurred outline of any object can be perceived. The ability of optical objects to distinguish fine detail is determined by “angular resolution”. In the human eye this is an impressive 0.02 degrees. The team estimate that in Synechocystis it is about 21 degrees.

Source: phys.org

Please follow and like us:

The Power Of Saying No



There is power in the simple act of saying no, but for many of us it’s the hardest word to say.

The biggest challenge when it comes to saying no we worry that we’ll be thought to be negative or unhelpful. While saying yes is thought to be courageous and gracious.

But the simple act of saying no has power and can often be an act of great courage, and most likely many of us should probably do more often.

The next time you’re tempted to automatically say yes, remember there is great power in saying no and sometimes it’s the best answer for everyone.

Here are some reasons when saying no has power:

Not everything is your responsibility. If you are a people-pleaser you might feel it’s your responsibility to say yes to everyone and everything. But the truth is this: Making other people happy isn’t your job, and not everything is your responsibility. You will never please everyone, and over committing can keep you from doing anything well. Decide what you choose to be responsible for and focus on always keeping your commitments.

What other people think of you is none of your business. If you’re saying yes because you want to be seen as nice or kind —forget it. People will think of you the way they think of you—regardless, of what you say. Most of the time their judgments are more grounded in their own projections than anything you do. The only thing you have to concern yourself with is who you are and whether you are being true to yourself.

You are the expert on your own priorities.  No one else has full knowledge of what’s important to you, and no one should be telling you what your priorities are. If you’re trying to do something meaningful with your life, saying yes all the time is just a long exercise in frustration. You know what’s most important to you, and those priorities can guide you in knowing when to say yes and when to say no.

You must commit to yourself. We usually think of commitments as promises we make to other people , but it’s important for your commitments to include yourself. Because all that we do, must begin with being committed to ourselves.

You have the right to live your life the way you want it.  There’s probably no shortage of people trying to tell you how to live your life, how to run your business and how to make your company work. Remember, though: How you live is your choice. How you spend your time is your choice. Sometimes saying no means living the life we want, while saying yes is allowing others to tell us what to do.

Of course there are many times you can, and should, say yes. But there are also times when saying no is powerful. It is saying that you are being true to yourself and what you want. If you value your life and success, you need to get good at saying no.

LEAD FROM WITHIN: There is power in the simple act of saying no, but for many of us it’s the hardest word to say. When you are saying no; do not lie. do not make excuses, do not over explain. Just decline. It is that simple and that powerful.

Source: lollydaskal.com

Please follow and like us:

NASA Confirms Evidence That Liquid Water Flows on Today’s Mars


New findings from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) provide the strongest evidence yet that liquid water flows intermittently on present-day Mars.

Using an imaging spectrometer on MRO, researchers detected signatures of hydrated minerals on slopes where mysterious streaks are seen on the Red Planet. These darkish streaks appear to ebb and flow over time. They darken and appear to flow down steep slopes during warm seasons, and then fade in cooler seasons. They appear in several locations on Mars when temperatures are above minus 10 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 23 Celsius), and disappear at colder times.

“Our quest on Mars has been to ‘follow the water,’ in our search for life in the universe, and now we have convincing science that validates what we’ve long suspected,” said John Grunsfeld, astronaut and associate administrator of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. “This is a significant development, as it appears to confirm that water — albeit briny — is flowing today on the surface of Mars.”

These downhill flows, known as recurring slope lineae (RSL), often have been described as possibly related to liquid water. The new findings of hydrated salts on the slopes point to what that relationship may be to these dark features. The hydrated salts would lower the freezing point of a liquid brine, just as salt on roads here on Earth causes ice and snow to melt more rapidly. Scientists say it’s likely a shallow subsurface flow, with enough water wicking to the surface to explain the darkening.

“We found the hydrated salts only when the seasonal features were widest, which suggests that either the dark streaks themselves or a process that forms them is the source of the hydration. In either case, the detection of hydrated salts on these slopes means that water plays a vital role in the formation of these streaks,” said Lujendra Ojha of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) in Atlanta, lead author of a report on these findings published Sept. 28 by Nature Geoscience.

Ojha first noticed these puzzling features as a University of Arizona undergraduate student in 2010, using images from the MRO’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). HiRISE observations now have documented RSL at dozens of sites on Mars. The new study pairs HiRISE observations with mineral mapping by MRO’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM).

The spectrometer observations show signatures of hydrated salts at multiple RSL locations, but only when the dark features were relatively wide. When the researchers looked at the same locations and RSL weren’t as extensive, they detected no hydrated salt.

Ojha and his co-authors interpret the spectral signatures as caused by hydrated minerals called perchlorates. The hydrated salts most consistent with the chemical signatures are likely a mixture of magnesium perchlorate, magnesium chlorate and sodium perchlorate. Some perchlorates have been shown to keep liquids from freezing even when conditions are as cold as minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 70 Celsius). On Earth, naturally produced perchlorates are concentrated in deserts, and some types of perchlorates can be used as rocket propellant.

Perchlorates have previously been seen on Mars. NASA’s Phoenix lander and Curiosity rover both found them in the planet’s soil, and some scientists believe that the Viking missions in the 1970s measured signatures of these salts. However, this study of RSL detected perchlorates, now in hydrated form, in different areas than those explored by the landers. This also is the first time perchlorates have been identified from orbit.

MRO has been examining Mars since 2006 with its six science instruments.

Please follow and like us:

The Growth of Robotics in STEM Education


STEM education is the trend on rise. It stands for science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

In today’s world everything moves at a very high pace and so does the education system. The competition today is cut throat. Every child is blessed with a good brain and the education system also laid a great emphasis on further betterment. The STEM education system is one such effort. In order to increase the competitiveness in the field of science and education, this education policy came into being. This system has ramification for national security concerns, workforce development as well as immigration policy.

It has not been very long when the term SMET was changed to STEM in an interagency meet on science education that was held at National Science Foundation. It was chaired by Rita Colwell, the then director of NSF.

The main aim of the STEM education system is to teach the students how to implement what they study in their classrooms. This education system works on bringing into use the principles and practices of science, technology, engineering and mathematics in real world. This hands-on learning program prepares the students in school to carry forward their interest in the STEM subjects to their real life.

The STEM education system has been received by open arms worldwide. Every nation wants its younger lot to excel in his or her career and bring laurels to the nation. The NASA (National Aeronotics And Space Administration) has also enforced programs to STEM education system in order to get the best lot of future scientists and mathematicians. Other nations too, have implemented STEM education system to ensure a bright tomorrow in the world of science and technology.

The United States of America has also started many campaigns to encourage women in taking up STEM fields. The US government is doing every possible thing to empower women in this field to. Qatar is not far behind. It has taken up an initiative called AL-Bairaq program to promote STEM education. The Qatar University carries out this program through Center for Advanced Materials (CAM). In Turkey the program runs as Turkish STEM Education Task Force. Canada produces 21. 2 % of graduates from STEM programs. Other countries like Germany, Austria , France and Finland are also not far behind.

Thus, STEM education system is growing by leaps and bounds. Every nation is putting its faith in this system of education. The STEM education system is growing worldwide. The teachings of science, technology, computer, engineering as well as maths are being practiced out of the class room and that to by the young kids. All the nations are gearing up to produce a sharp and learned lot of young students.

Why STEM Education Is Important In Today’s World

The competition in today’s world is cut throat. To excel in any field, the student must be prepared from the beginning. The STEM education gives the student a chance to develop a better understanding of the STEM subjects from the early grades. This is also very beneficial for the students who already have an inclination towards science, technology, engineering and maths.

As the STEM education makes learning inspiring, fun and engaging, the students imbibe more than what they grap in regular education pattern.  The best thing is the hands- on experience provided by this system. The students learn to work in team and inculcate an intutive understanding of the physical concepts of maths and science. The child imbibes the problem solving strategies in early grades. It gives them a good start at high school & college.

Please follow and like us:

Layer by layer


Andrew Turley investigates a build-it-yourself 3D printer you can use in your classroom.

It is often said that we are most creative when we’re young. Mozart was composing music at five. Einstein was 26 in the year he published special relativity. Zuckerberg started Facebook as an undergraduate. The evidence is everywhere you look.

The truth, of course, is a little more complicated. Plenty of luminaries burned their brightest later in life. But either way, there’s certainly no harm in starting early. With this in mind, access to tools becomes the key concern, and three issues stand out most prominently: cost, safety and basic mechanics.

In order to play, child chess genius Bobby Fischer needed just a board and some pieces, relatively cheap items to procure and harmless. And the rules of chess are pretty simple – a young Fischer could start experimenting, learning and creating pretty quickly. Chess might be considered one of the easier disciplines for a young student to access.

Chemistry, meanwhile, must rank as one of the hardest. Equipment is expensive, labs are dangerous and the basic mechanics are complex.

Student 3D printing
3D printing offers students a glimpse of how chemistry can be applied to engineering challenges.

As US high school chemistry teacher Matt Ragusa, puts it, ‘it’s not like I can just let the kids loose with the chemicals’.


Matt’s solution has been the build-it-yourself 3D printer, designed by an education outreach team at the University of Illinois.1 The team is led by Joe Muskin, an education coordinator at Illinois tasked with finding new ways to take the university’s research into classrooms. Matt worked extensively on the printer while an undergraduate at the university. He was then able to take the skills, knowledge and experience gained with him into his teaching career.

The printer uses stereolithography, a printing process in which the product is built up, layer by layer, through polymerisation of a photoreactive resin by a light source of some kind, usually a laser. The process is well established, and consumer units are commercially available, but are too expensive for most educational environments.

The Illinois printer swaps out the most expensive components of the consumer units for parts that might be commonly found in schools and colleges or could be acquired at minimal expense.

Please follow and like us:

Float the Salt, Please: ISS Family Dinner

When there are nine people aboard the International Space Station, it’s a bit of a full house….


Please follow and like us:

Solar water-splitting technology developed


Rice University researchers have demonstrated an efficient new way to capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into clean, renewable energy by splitting water molecules.

The technology, which is described online in the American Chemical Society journal Nano Letters, relies on a configuration of light-activated gold nanoparticles that harvest sunlight and transfer solar energy to highly excited electrons, which scientists sometimes refer to as “hot electrons.”

“Hot electrons have the potential to drive very useful chemical reactions, but they decay very rapidly, and people have struggled to harness their energy,” said lead researcher Isabell Thomann, assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering and of chemistry and materials science and nanoengineering at Rice. “For example, most of the energy losses in today’s best photovoltaic solar panels are the result of hot electrons that cool within a few trillionths of a second and release their energy as wasted heat.”

Capturing these high-energy electrons before they cool could allow solar-energy providers to significantly increase their solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiencies and meet a national goal of reducing the cost of solar electricity.

In the light-activated nanoparticles studied by Thomann and colleagues at Rice’s Laboratory for Nanophotonics (LANP), light is captured and converted into plasmons, waves of electrons that flow like a fluid across the metal surface of the nanoparticles. Plasmons are high-energy states that are short-lived, but researchers at Rice and elsewhere have found ways to capture plasmonic energy and convert it into useful heat or light. Plasmonic nanoparticles also offer one of the most promising means of harnessing the power of hot electrons, and LANP researchers have made progress toward that goal in several recent studies.

Thomann and her team, graduate students Hossein Robatjazi, Shah Mohammad Bahauddin and Chloe Doiron, created a system that uses the energy from hot electrons to split molecules of water into oxygen and hydrogen. That’s important because oxygen and hydrogen are the feedstocks for fuel cells, electrochemical devices that produce electricity cleanly and efficiently.

Please follow and like us:
Social media & sharing icons powered by UltimatelySocial